Sunday, 6 November 2016

SHORT ANSWERS - SONS AND LOVERS BY D.H. LAWRENCE

SONS AND LOVERS BY D.H. LAWRENCE

(i) Write the names of four novels of D.H. Lawrence.
Ans. D.H. Lawrence is best known for his novels: Sons and Lovers, The Rainbow, Women in Love and Lady Chatterley's Lover.
(ii) What is the setting of 'Sons and Lovers'?
Ans. The novel is primarily set at Bestwood, an English coal-mining town in Nottinghamshire in the early 1900's. Other places include The Bottoms and Willey Farm. The Bottoms is Bestwood's neighbourhood in which the Morel family lives. Willey Farm is the home of Miriam Lievers, Paul Morel's first lover.
(iii) What is the significance of the title 'Sons and Lovers'?
Ans. Before publication the novel was titled "Paul Morel", however, it was finally titled "Sons and Lovers" to broaden its scope. "Sons and Lovers" signify something incestuous, in the sense that Paul is simultaneously Mrs. Morels' son and her lover.
(iv) Why does D.H. Lawrence adopt the omniscient narrator in 'Sons and Lovers'?
Ans. By choosing an omniscient third person narrator, Lawrence positions the Morel's problems inside the larger historical conflicts of modern industry -- e.g., the English mining industry that graces the book's opening pages. Moreover, the third-person omniscient narrator allows Lawrence to make us a little sympathetic toward evil or pathetic characters like Walter Morel, whom every other character seems to hate.
(v) What are the major themes in 'Sons and Lovers'?
Ans. Oedipus complex, bondage, contradictions and oppositions, nature and flowers, drugs and alcohol, women and femininity, men and masculinity, art and culture, technology and modernization, family, love and pride are the major themes in "Sons and Lovers".
(vi) What is Oedipus complex?
Ans. The term Oedipus complex denotes the emotions and ideas that the mind keeps in the unconscious, via dynamic repression, that concentrates upon a child's desire to have sexual relations with the parent of the opposite sex.
(vii) How does 'Sons and Lovers' explore the Oedipus complex?
Ans. In "Sons and Lovers", Paul is hopelessly devoted to his mother, and that love often borders on romantic desire. Lawrence writes many scenes between the two that go beyond the bounds of conventional mother-son love. Completing the Oedipal equation, Paul murderously hates his father and often fantasizes about his death.
(viii) What relationships have been described in 'Sons and Lovers'?
Ans. In this novel, each character pairs up with someone who is quite unlike them, and they attract to each other either spiritually or sensually. Paul is torn between his passion for two women, Miriam and his mother Gertrude. His relationship with his mother is an example of Oedipus complex.
(ix) Why is 'Sons and Lovers' a bildungsroman?
Ans. Bildungsroman is a form of fiction which allows the novelist to recreate through the maturing of his protagonist some of his own remembered intensity of experience. In "Sons and Loves", the scenes of family life, the mining background, Paul and Miriam relationship, and Mr. Morel as a father are examples of Lawrence's own experience.
(x) What are the elements of Freudian psychoanalysis in 'Sons and Lovers'?
Ans. The elements of Freudian psychoanalysis in "Sons and Lovers" are Oedipus Complex and Euthanasia. Paul is hopelessly devoted to his mother, and that love often borders on romantic desire. At the end of the novel, Paul intentionally overdoses his dying mother with morphia, an act that reduces her suffering and subverts his Oedipal fate, since he does not kill his father, but his mother.
(xi) What is euthanasia? Who are the victims of euthanasia in 'Sons and Lovers'?
Ans. Euthanasia is the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. At the end of the novel, Paul intentionally overdoses his dying mother with morphia to reduce her pain and suffering. Thus Paul is a victim of Euthanasia.
(xii) What are the factors that keep Morel family together in spite of their differences?
Ans. According to Lawrence, 'blood contact', not mental communion, is a prerequisite in family relations. It is the reason why Paul's father and mother stay together in spite of their disrupted marriage, and has kept Morel family together in spite of their differences.
(xiii) Interpret 'He was an outsider. He had denied the God in him'.
Ans. This line is from "Sons and Lovers" by D.H. Lawrence. This line is spoken by a hidden authorial voice. It is stating that Walter Morel is a bad person. He is a pretty bad husband and father. There is no sympathy,  consideration and humanity in his character.
(xiv) Who is Gertrude?
Ans. Gertrude is the first protagonist of the novel "Sons and Lovers". She is unhappily married to Walter Morel, and she redirects her attention to her children. She is first obsessed with William, but his death leaves her empty and redirects her energies towards Paul. She bitterly disapproves of all the women these two son encounter, masking her jealously with other excuses.
(xv) Who is Walter Morel?
Ans. Walter Morel is Gertrude's husband and a coal miner. He was once a humorous, lively man, but over time he has become a cruel, selfish alcoholic. His family, especially, Mrs. Morel, despises him, and Paul frequently entertains fantasies of his father's dying.

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